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Profile: African Union  – BBC News, August 24, 2017   Conceived by the then Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi as a “United States of Africa”, its structure is loosely modelled on that of the European Union. It inaugurated a pan-African parliament in March 2004… There are far-reaching plans to set up a human rights court, a central bank and monetary fund, and by 2023 an African Economic Community with a single currency.

Why India Wants the African Union in G20 Immediately

June 2023

Harmonizing Economic Union of East African Community

Devdiscourse, 13 August 2021

East African Community to conclude review of common external tariff in 2021
News Ghana, Aug 12, 2021 – The East African Community (EAC), a regional intergovernmental organization, plans to conclude a comprehensive review of the uniform tariff rate, the Common External Tariff (CET) in 2021, an official said Wednesday.
Peter Mathuki, secretary general of the EAC, told a virtual forum that the six member states — Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda — have agreed to increase the number of tariff bands to four from the current three in order to boost the region’s industrialization agenda.
REGIONAL Vaccine Pass
EAC calls for a coordinated approach on Covid-19
The East African, Augst 13, 2021 – The East African Community wants a coordinated approach by all partner states in combating Covid-19.
The EAC Secretary General Dr. Peter Mathuki wants Covid-19 testing charges and quarantine administrative procedures harmonised across the region, to ease free movement of people.
“We are also pushing for the adoption of the EAC Pass, which integrates all EAC Partner States’ negative test results for Covid-19, and those already vaccinated to ensure safe and seamless travel across the region.”
REGIONAL Education System
Partner states make progress in adopting Competency Based Education
The East African, August 8, 2021 – In 2016, EAC Heads of States meeting in Dar es Salaam, declared the EAC as a Common Higher Education Area. This means national higher education and training systems are to operate and are guided by the common regional framework under which curricula, examinations and certification as well as academic and professional qualifications, and the quality of the educational and training output in higher education would be harmonised.
This is in addition to the Standards and Qualifications rolled out in 2015 by the East African Community, which each university in the region is expected to adhere to.

Africa Will ‘One Day Have a Common Currency’ Says Secretary General of African Continental Free Trade Area, July 13, 2021 – The secretary-general of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA) secretariat, Wamkele Mene, says Africa will “one day have a common currency” via a proposed “Pan-African Payment and Settlement System (PAPSS).” He adds that such a currency will help “ease constraints of settling intra-African trade in foreign-denominated currency.”
ECOWAS: West African bloc aims to launch single currency in 2027
DW (Germany), June 19, 2021 – The 15-nation Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on Saturday announced 2027 as the new date to launch its single currency, the “eco.”
The bloc had planned to launch a common currency this year but postponed the plan due to challenges posed by the coronavirus pandemic.

Reaching out to ‘United States of Africa’
Hindu Business Line (India), Oct 9, 2015 – What can be a better wishlist than Agenda 2063 adopted by the African Union a couple of years back? The aspirations enumerated in the agenda document calls for the creation of the United States of Africa by 2063 …. The India-Africa Forum Summit would sincerely look for ways to help Africa achieve these goals.

In African Union, Globalist Agenda Becomes Clear
AU - African Union & Sub-RegionsKissinger Book - 'WORLD ORDER'Kissinger: world order [world government] will require ‘concept of order [regional government] within the various regions and to relate these regional orders to one another’
By Alex Newman, The New American, Sept 21, 2015 – In Africa, owing to a lack of infrastructure and communications, unifying the entire continent all at once is simply not practical. So, globalist planners — both from the “West” and from the “East” — are making use of sub-regional governments that will eventually all be merged under the emerging single African regime….
That, in essence, is what globalist forces eventually hope to do to the entire world. Once national governments worldwide finish surrendering their sovereignty to regional regimes — the EU, the AU, Vladimir Putin’s Eurasian Union, the Union of South American States (UNASUR or UNASUL), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Middle-East Union, and more — all of the regional blocs will be subsumed under a single global authority.
None of this is a secret, and those involved in the agenda have openly boasted of their machinations. “The contemporary quest for world order [world government] will require a coherent strategy to establish a concept of order [regional government] within the various regions and to relate these regional orders [governments] to one another,” explained senior globalist Henry Kissinger in his latest book, World Order.

Videos: BLOC HEADS (2013): Intro (African Union)
BLOC HEADS (2013) Part 5 of 10: African Union, South America

Videos: Bill to create single East African Currency
ECOWAS member states to work on common currency
ECOWAS Parliament recommends single currency

Continental free trade pact comes into effect June
In theory, Africans will be free to trade, work and move all over within the continent without restrictions
Business Daily (Kenya), May 5, 2019 – This in theory implies that from July, Africans will be free to trade, work and move all over within the continent without restrictions as it is the case now….
All that is now left is for the African Union and African Ministers of Trade to finalise work on supporting instruments to facilitate the launch of the operational phase of the AfCFTA during an Extra-Ordinary heads of state and government summit slated for July 7.
African Continental Free Trade Area
‘All these borders will become meaningless, will become ficticious….This will take time’
Single African passport
African Union, April 27, 2019, YouTube
Following the path of the European Union from its beginnings as the European Common Market
East African nations mull referenda on political confederation
Xinhua (China), April 29, 2019 – The East African Community (EAC) member states each plan to hold national referenda to decide whether to have a political confederation or not, officials said on Monday.
Alice Yalla, acting integration secretary at Kenya’s Ministry of East African Community and Regional Development told Xinhua in Nairobi that a committee of experts, three from each of the six partner states is currently developing a draft constitution for governing the political confederation….
EAC member states include Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan.

ECOWAS Single Currency to debut in 2020 with select countries
Recommended that member states ‘….promote regional integration through the free movement of factors of production. Create a permanent integration framework among the ECOWAS commission, WAMA, WAMI and the ECOWAS parliament’
Vanguard (Nigeria), March 9, 2019 – The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) through its parliament has reaffirmed its commitment to introducing the community’s unified monetary unit by next year….
According to the forum, “to ensure the sustainability of the ECOWAS single currency, it is key to continue efforts to harmonize monetary and budgetary policies. This requires the strengthening of the multilateral surveillance mechanism through greater involvement of Central Banks and Finance Ministries.”

New ECOWAS Travel Card and Nigeria’s economy
Unhindered movement of persons and goods within regional bloc modeled after NAFTA Free Movement of Persons Protocol
Daily Trust (Nigeria), April 1, 2019 – The implementation of the ECOWAS Travel Card by some member countries has been hailed as the right decision to facilitate the unhindered movement of persons and goods within the regional bloc….For Nigerian businessmen and women and for travelers within the region, the ECOWAS Travel Card is easy to obtain and has two-year validity.  The travel is card synchronized with the digital features in the National Identity Management documents and is fashioned after the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Free Movement of Persons Protocol.

Prospects for a More Peaceful Africa: The Potential of a Monetary Union
Regional economic unions serving as precursors to the final unification of all of Africa under a single currency and economy

International Policy Digest, Sept 18, 2015 – The African Union is in the process of creating an economic and monetary union like the European Union as one of its primary goals…. The proposed steps to be taken before the implementation of full economic union—with regional economic unions serving as precursors to the final unification of all of Africa under a single currency and economy—has some benefits, but it has one glaring weakness. It is inevitable that some of these precursor economic unions will be stronger than others and may vastly outperform the others which might result in the more powerful unions balking even though all the other unions do combine. The result could be two competing economic blocs rather than a unified Africa. While the situation may still be preferable to the current state of affairs, it is easy to imagine situations in which conflict between the states in these two potential economic blocs could develop. The ability to strengthen military capabilities in countries in the stronger economic block could cause some nations to implement revisionist policies in search of natural resources.

Currency depreciation and diverging inflation rates block the road to monetary union in Africa
Lessons from Greece and the Eurozone

London School of Economics, Dec 22, 2015 – The chase for regional monetary unions seems to be part of Africa’s 21st century holy grail…. The enduring lesson from the challenges facing the Eurozone should be one ─ getting regional integration right is more important than getting it quickly, and economic blocs in Africa should take cognizance of the same.

AU rolls out continental passport
To speed up establishment of Africa Economic Community, ‘free movement of Africans across the continent’
The Herald (Zimbabwe), May 9, 2016 – The African Union (AU) said on Saturday it has started the process of issuing the continent’s passport. Kenya’s Cabinet Secretary in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Amina Mohamed …. said that regional economic blocs such as the East African Community have already introduced a regional passport to ease travel within the blocs. “The African passport will build on the success achieved by the trading blocs and help to achieve the dream of free movement of Africans across the continent,” she said. The cabinet ecretary noted that the continental passport will help to speed up the process of establishment of the Africa Economic Community. “It will also boost intra-Africa trade that is below the level of other continents,” she added. – Xinhua.
Is a Pan-African Police Force the Answer to Rising Militancy?
Afripol Compared to European Union’s Europol
Newsweek, Jan 9, 2016 – The creation of Afripol—the Mechanism of African Police Cooperation—is one part of this strategy, with Major General Abdelghani Hamel, Algeria’s chief of national security, announcing that the new body will “bring a police response to the global threats in a changing environment.” …. While Algeria is fast-tracking the creation of Afripol, the new mechanism still needs to be signed off by the African Union. This process took many years for Europol.
Crossing borders: East African integration
Region already one of most integrated areas in the world after Europe
African Law & Business, Nov 17, 2015 – The East African Community (EAC), which comprises Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, is further strengthening ties as the five states push towards closer integration. The region already counts as one of the most integrated areas in the world after Europe, and is largely based on other communities particularly the European Union. This also reflects a global trend, as states seek greater cross-border cooperation. Tom Ottervanger, of counsel at Allen & Overy in Amsterdam notes …. The main purpose for abolishing borders is trade, opening the market and allowing businesses to sell products in a wider region…. “There is no doubt that EAC countries are doing very well but they could do better without economic and national borders,”, he says.
Key Bills On East African Single Currency Complete
The East African (Kenya), March 5, 2016 – East African Community member states have completed drafting crucial legislation required to fast-track the establishment of a single currency regime. The EAC heads of state signed a protocol in November 2013 in Kampala committing to a 10-year road map towards achieving a monetary union in 2024. The protocol provides for the introduction of a single currency and creation of a single central bank for the region.
Harmonisation of rules on medicines crucial to EAC
Regional Regulation of Pharmaceutical Industry
Daily News (Tanzania), Jan 7, 2016 – Harmonization of regulations, standards and requirements governing pharmaceutical industry is one of the major policy priority areas of the five-member East African Community (EAC)…. The Arusha-based EAC Secretariat in collaboration with its partner states are also developing regional Pharmaceutical policy, legal and regulatory frameworks to support enforcement of various regional initiatives in the pharmaceutical industry.
East African Community Citizens To Acquire EAC e-Passport SoonFootprint to Africa (Nigeria), Jan 7, 2016 – East African Community (EAC) said it is about to fulfill one of its mandates as EAC citizens will soon acquire EAC e-passports that will help ease their movement in the EAC bloc, Footprint to Africa reports…. The secretariat also allotted funds for study into a regional e-Passport that would be used by the regional citizens for international travel…. Financial integration is deepening. Free movement of labour is becoming a reality, definitely for Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda.
EAC seeks ‘common borders’ for education – The New Times (Rwanda), Oct 6, 2015 – The East African Community (EAC) is looking into the adoption of a common education protocol to ease movement of learners and teachers within the region. Regional experts behind the plan say the creation of a common EAC Higher Education Area (EACHEA) implies that qualifications will be appropriately recognised in all partner states both for continuation of studies as well as in the labour market. It means that the education system in the five partner states will be harmonised, comparable, and compatible, thus boosting knowledge and skills development.
ECOWAS Court Opens for New Term; Calls for Enforcement of Decisions
Front Page Africa, Oct 26, 2015 – The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice (CCJ) opened for its 2015/16 Legal Year last Thursday in Abuja, Nigeria…. In her opening address, Court President Monteiro bemoaned Member States’ delay in setting up competent national authorities to execute the judgments of the Court, in keeping with Article 24 of the 2005 ECOWAS Protocol. “Despite repeated requests, only three States have complied with this statutory requirement”, the President stated. She named Nigeria, Guinea and Mali, out of fifteen Member States, that have complied by setting up relevant institutions to enforce the Court’s judgments.
She added: “I wish therefore to seize this opportunity to thank the integrationist and diligent attitudes of the Authorities [of Heads of State] and encourage the other twelve remaining Members to follow suit. One cannot comprehend a timely and effective justice which is not binding. A strong court of justice, independent and respected will inevitably contribute to the promotion of greater regional integration”.
ECOWAS: Promoting unity, development, integration among member-states
The Guardian (Nigeria), Jan 4, 2015 – We have gone beyond the protocol on free movement of persons and goods, realising the harmonisation of trade and our customs codes. The achievement of the ECOWAS Common External Tariff and Trade Liberalisation Scheme is a vital signpost in the convergence criteria required for our Common Currency regime. Our people can now reside and freely move from one country to another in our region without stress while the region’s infrastructure deficit has been substantially reduced.
ECOWAS biometric card comes off in January 2016
GhanaWeb, Oct 22, 2015 – Mrs Sena Siaw-Boateng, National Director of ECOWAS at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration, says member countries are to introduce common biometric identity cards to ensure free movement of persons across the sub-region. She made this known at a day’s seminar in Tamale on Tuesday to sensitise public sector workers, security agencies and civil society groups as part of processes to deepen understanding of the new protocols and arrangements towards full integration of the sub-region. She said the biometric card is one of the major indicators that would enhance the free movement of persons from one ECOWAS country to the other for economic activities.

A shot in the arm for African finance – | China Daily, Aug 4, 2014 – No lesser a commentator than Jim O’Neill – the former chairman of investments at Goldman Sachs, who is credited with coining the acronym “BRIC” in the first place – has disputed the worthiness of South Africa as a BRICS member…. It is no coincidence that the rollout of the new BRICS bank came barely a month after the African Union endorsed a plan for the establishment of the African Monetary Fund.

AU - one-people-one-africa-uniteAfrican central bank governors seek monetary integration – Newstrack India, August 31, 2012 – African central banks’ governors have called for speeding up of the process of monetary integration in Africa as a step towards achieving the goals of creating the African Central Bank (ACB) and ultimately issuing an African single currency.

Call for African Integration At Davos – AllAfrica, Jan. 27, 2012 – Guinea President Alpha Condé advocated the establishment of several pan-African ministries to drive the process of continental integration….[Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi] cautioned that “we cannot wish a common African government into existence. It is a slow process of integration.” He pointed to the example of Europe, which integrated over the course of about 50 years, yet was still encountering problems. Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete said a common market in Africa could be achieved through     the integration and merging of current regional trade groupings…

AU pushes ahead with African Standby Force – defenceWeb (South Africa), June 17, 2015 – The African Union (AU) believes Africa will have a united and functioning single military by the end of this year as leaders on Monday pledged to accelerate the operationalisation of the African Standby Force (ASF)…. Such a force would also be crucial to counter terrorists groups like Boko Haram and al Shabaab that have killed thousands of people and displaced many in West Africa. The envisaged 25 000-strong ASF operating through five regional brigades is expected to be the backbone of the continent’s new peace and security architecture.

Africa one step closer to a free trade bloc – Mail & Guardian (South Africa), June 19, 2015 – The negotiations for a continental free COMESA-SADC-EAC Tripartitetrade agreement were launched at the African Union summit this week, and come off the back of the ratification of the smaller but significant tripartite free trade agreement in Egypt earlier this month. The tripartite agreement links three major regional blocs – the East African Community (EAC), the Southern African Development Community and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa…. With the signing of the tripartite agreement, however, the dream of a continental agreement is no longer as distant as it once seemed.

King invited to address the Pan African Parliament – Swazi Observer (Swaziland), June 19, 2015 – His Majesty King Mswati III has been invited to address the Pan African Parliament (PAP) at a conference to be held in August…. The ultimate aim of the Pan African Parliament shall be to evolve into an institution with full legislative powers, whose members are elected by universal adult suffrage. However, until such a time as the members states decide otherwise by amending the Protocol, the Pan African Parliament shall have consultative and advisory powers.

African Union debates single currency
TV360 (Nigeria), June 12, 2015 – The Africa Union is mooting the idea to adopt a single currency as part of the Agenda 2063 roadmap worked out by the organization, Anthony Mothae Maruping, AU Commissioner for Economic Affairs, said on Thursday…. Leaders of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi [East African Community member nations] have already signed a protocol in the Ugandan capital of Kampala for the adoption of a common currency in 10 years, said Maruping…. As part of the Agenda 2063, Maruping said, AU also moots the idea of launching a Common Africa Passport to boost the integration of all Africans. With the introduction of a common passport in Africa, “We’ll create a common identity for all African,” Maruping said, adding that the common passport would also make it easier for Africans to travel across the continent without restrictions.

AU Blames Terrorism On Foreign Millitary Interventions – New Zimbabwe, May 16, 2015 – The African Union (AU) has said it is concerned about increase in terrorist activities in the continent blaming such crises on foreign military intervention. The continental body feels a home grown military force would end instability and ensure peace prevails by “closing out” western powers’ interference under the guise of military help.

EAC leaders meet to decide on constitution of political federation
The East African, Nov 22, 2014 – East Africa enters the most decisive stage in its ambitious quest for a political union this week when the five heads of state launch the writing of a federal constitution and issue a time frame for establishment of a regional government. Political integration … would pave the way for a strong authority to reinforce implementation of the other stages of integration — the Common Market, the Monetary Union and the Customs Union. The presidents of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda are expected to make a final decision on what form political federation will take before the draft AU - African Union & Sub-Regionsconstitution is put in place.

EAC members to harmonise primary and secondary education curricula – NTV Uganda, May 19, 2015 – Chairman of the East African Community council of ministers, Abdalla Saddala, told the regional assembly that they are in the process of developing Instructional materials to re-orient teachers to the approved EAC curricula.

East African states draft regional health policy
SpyGhana, March 23, 2015 – Jessica Eriyo, East African Community Deputy Secretary General in charge of Productive and Social Sectors told reporters here on Monday that the policy will among others harmonize the EAC - MAPhealth policies of the member states which include Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi…. When in place, the policy will lead to the formation of centers of excellence in each member country. According to the plan, Uganda will be the center of excellence in treating Cancer, Kenya will be charged with issues of Urology, Burundi will be for nutrition and Rwanda for health systems.

East African leaders call for speedy implementation of the monetary union – Global Post | Xinhua, Feb 20, 2015 – The East African Community (EAC) leaders on Friday called for the speedy implementation of the East African Monetary Union (EAMU). Incoming Chair of the EAC Summit Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete said all the partner states have ratified the protocol on the establishment of the EAMU. “In order to achieve a single currency in the next 10 years, all the five member states should abide by the approved roadmap,” Kikwete said….
Single EA currency: Central bank governors push for cooperation
– IPP Media (Tanzania), Feb 9, 2015 – Central bank governors from East African Community (EAC) member states have urged stakeholders to be fully determined and cooperate during the interim period of having a single currency.

ECOWAS-MAPECOWAS discusses single currency in Niger – SpyGhana, Feb 10, 2015 – President John Mahama this morning joined his colleague, President Mahamadou Issoufou of Niger, to receive the report of the third meeting of a Presidential Task Force on the ECOWAS Monetary Cooperation Programme, in Niamey. The Presidential Task Force, made up of Ministers of Finance and Central Bank Governors, is helping the two leaders implement the agreed road map for achieving the January 2020 deadline for the introduction of a single currency and launch of the ECOWAS Monetary Union.

African States To Empower AU Court In Bid To Exit ICC
Citizen News (Kenya), Jan 27, 2015 – The African Union has moved to expand the powers of the existing African Court to also try international crimes following concerns that the International Criminal Court based at The Hague is targeting Africa and Africans. Leaders from the continent are expected to endorse the Malabo Protocol granting international criminal jurisdiction to the African Court of Justice and Human Rights.

Deeper integration: SADC sets priorities for 2014 – Southern Times (South Africa), March 28, 2014 – SADC [South African Development Community] companies will have access to a combined population of approximately 600 million people, spanning from Cape to Cairo. The single market would serve as one of the building blocks of an African Economic Community. The target for COMESA-EAC-SADC is to reach an agreement by June, paving the way for the launch of the grand FTA that will become a new benchmark for deeper regional and continental integration in Africa.

African FTA ‘ambitious but achievable’  –, July 10, 2012 – At an AU [African Union] summit earlier this year, African leaders endorsed the plan, expected to be operational by the end of 2017. It envisages a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of US$875-billion from 26 countries. The East African Community (EAC), Common Market for Eastern and Central Africa (COMESA) and Southern African Development Community (SADC) have already begun negotiations to merge, which is a precursor to a single trade area across the continent.

BH 1Gaddafism: An African hero’s legacy lives on  – New Zimbabwe, Oct 20, 2013 – Despite Libya being a small nation, Gaddafi paid one quarter of the African Union’s bills. Now the African Union has been reduced to begging the European Union for funds to keep the lights on….Perhaps, Gaddafi’s greatest crime, in the eyes of NATO, was his desire for a strong and United States of Africa. In fact, in August 2011, President Obama confiscated $30 billion from Libya’s Central Bank, which Gaddafi had earmarked for the establishment of the African IMF and African Central Bank.

Libya, Africa and Africom – CounterPunch, May 25, 2012 – It is no coincidence that barely a month after the fall of Tripoli – and in the same month Gaddafi was murdered (October 2011) – the US announced it was sending troops to no less than four more African countries….None of this would have been possible whilst Gaddafi was still in power.  As founder of the African Union, its biggest donor, and its one-time elected Chairman, he wielded serious influence on the continent.

Africa free trade zone in operation by 2018 – Coastweek (Kenya), June 1, 2012 – Africa’s free trade zone is expected to be operational by the end of 2017, a senior AU official said. Chairperson of the African Union Commission Jean Ping said in Nairobi that this will be achieved through the merger of all COMESA-SADC-EAC TripartiteAfrican regional trade blocks.
Major challenges remain for African free trade area – Irish Times, Feb. 13, 2012 – Ambitious plans to create a continental free trade area in Africa…were recently adopted by the African Union….The taxation of aid money in Africa, taxes from minerals and mining deals and revenues drawn from dealings with banks and multilateral bodies have all been suggested as ways to fund the continental trade boost…..The first [step] would be to finalise the tripartite agreement in the east African community [EAC], the common market for eastern and southern Africa [COMESA], and the southern African development community (SADC) by 2014. This would be followed by other similar trade treaties involving the economic community of west African states [ECOWAS], the economic community of central African states [ECCAS], the Arab Maghreb union [AMU] and the community of Sahel-Saharan states [CEN-SAD] between 2012 and 2014. The final step would be to consolidate all the regional trading entities between 2015 and 2016.
In sight of the Holy Grail – Southern Times, May 28, 2012 – The 26-member tripartite free trade area (T-FTA) has started negotiations for integrating SADC, COMESA and the East African Community (EAC) into a single economic bloc….The grandiose plan is anchored around collapsing the three regional economic communities (RECs) – with a combined population of 590 million and a GDP of US$1 trillion – into a single trading entity….It is an ambitious plan whose ultimate aim is laying the cornerstone for continent-wide integration.

On April 12, 2012 at the State House in Dar es Salaam, President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (centre) met with a delegation of five members of the United States’ Senate and House of Representatives serving in the Senate and House Armed Services Committees. The delegation led by Senator James Inhofe from Oklahoma (right front row). Others in the picture (from left to right) are Congressman Vernan Buchanan from Florida, Senator John Boozman from Arkansas, Congressman Jefferson Miller from Florida, U.S. Ambassador to Tanzania Alfonso E. Lenhardt and Congressman Steven Pearce of New Mexico. (Photo: U.S. Embassy, Dar es Salaam)

On April 12, 2012 at the State House in Dar es Salaam, President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (centre) met with a delegation of five members of the United States’ Senate and House of Representatives serving in the Senate and House Armed Services Committees. The delegation led by Senator James Inhofe from Oklahoma (right front row). Others in the picture (from left to right) are Congressman Vernan Buchanan from Florida, Senator John Boozman from Arkansas, Congressman Jefferson Miller from Florida, U.S. Ambassador to Tanzania Alfonso E. Lenhardt and Congressman Steven Pearce of New Mexico.
(Photo: U.S. Embassy, Dar es Salaam)

Why Are U.S. Senators, Congressmen Promoting the Federation of East Africa?                                                                                                    Region’s Secretary General Receives U.S. Senators  – Tanzania Daily News, April 15, 2012 –The delegation led by Senator James Inhofe,…. also included Senator John Boozman(Arkansas), Congressman Jeff Miller (Florida),….
Also in attendance was the EAC Deputy Secretary General in charge of Political Federation, Ms Beatrice Kiraso.In his remarks, Senator Inhofe praised the Secretary General for leading his troops in the integration process…. Senator Inhofe further noted that the USA was keeping tabs on the progress and developments at the EAC.
EAC to draft constitution for political federation
  – New Vision (Uganda), Sept 12, 2013 – The East African Community (EAC) is to name a team to draft the Constitution for the regional political federation….[Ambassador] Hatega said Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda started on the process in June and were later joined by Burundi during the August Mombasa summit. He explained that the treaty that established the EAC stipulated four steps namely the customs union, common market, monetary union and the final stage of political federation.

Prospects of Region’s Single Market – The Citizen (Tanzania), July 1, 2012 – This evolved into the current EAC [East African Community], which has made major strides moving from a free trade area, to a customs union, to a common market. The EAC is now poised, albeit prematurely, to become a monetary union….The common market extends the customs union by allowing free movement of factors of production, labour and capital, within the bloc. This is the level of integration the EAC is currently striving to make a reality.
This is the same level of integration that North America is pursuing with the Canada/U.S. “Beyond the Border” agreement, and is the real context for the lax U.S. border security.

5 East African states sign common currency deal  EAC - MAP– Las Vegas Sun/Associated Press, Dec 4, 2013 – The presidents of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda met Saturday in the Ugandan capital, Kampala….The EAC began 13 years ago with the goal of creating a common customs union, market, monetary union and a political federation

New Pacts Ease Path Toward East African Single Currency  – International Monetary Fund, Dec 30, 2013 – Moves toward deeper economic integration among the countries of the East African Community (EAC)—Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda—have gained new impetus from agreements sealed in recent weeks….
The IMF has supported the EAC regional integration process since its origins….Previous milestones in the EAC economic and financial integration agenda were a customs union protocol, established in 2005 with the introduction of a common external tariff and gradual elimination of internal tariffs; and a common market protocol signed in 2010, allowing free movement of goods, persons, labor, services, and capital.

EAC mulls harmony in health insurance  – Sunday Times (New Times, Rwanda), May 4, 2014 – The East African Community (EAC) has commissioned a study on how to harmonise social health protection in the five-member bloc…. The study entitled “Situational Analysis and Feasibility Study of Options for Harmonisation of Social Health Protection Systems towards Universal Access in the East African Partner States”…

Regional Ministers Push for Universal Health Insurance – AllAfrica, September 14, 2012 – EAC [East African Community] member states agreed to establish the committee as a first step towards rolling out Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The universal health coverage, once implemented, will ensure that a patient is accorded treatment from any of the EAC state, basing on insurance acquired from his or her home country….They also pledged to support cross-regional studies to explore harmonisation of social health protection policies, including an advocacy strategy and networking among private and public sector stakeholders.

East Africa: EAC to Harmonize Integration Through PPP – East African Business Week, Aug 31, 2014 – The East African and Central members states have being agreed to work together through Public Private Partnership (PPP) to revamp the regional infrastructure system in harmonizing regional integration to foster social and economic development in the region. …Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Transport, Dr Shaaban Mwinjaka said member states are ready to work together in collaboration with private sector in improving infrastructure system in the region such as roads, railways and airports.
“PPP (Public Private Partnership)” has become a common euphemism in the U.S and around the world for old-fashioned fascism, defined as an amalgam of big-business corporatism and big-government socialism. All of the world’s regional blocs are designed to be governed in this fashion.

SADC_MAPHouse ratifies SADC protocol on finance, investment – Daily News (Tanzania), June 7, 2014 – THE National Assembly on Friday ratified the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Finance and Investment …. Deputy Minister for Finance, Mr Mwigulu Nchemba …. said the protocol was also in line with the SADC Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan which directs member countries to enter into a Free Trade Area by 2008, a Customs Union by 2010, a Common Market by 2015, a Monetary Union by 2016 and, finally, a Single Currency by 2018.

Economist tells SADC to follow EU model – Angola Press, May 27, 2012 – The Angolan Economist, Carlos Rosado de Carvalho, Friday in Luanda suggested that the Southern Africa Ddevelopment Community (SADC) should adopt the model of functioning of the European Union with a view to a major and better regional integration as it is an experience of true success….Carlos Rosado also stated that after the economic integration, in order for  things to work, there must be a stronger political integration which, he admitted, is actually on the agenda.

Kenyatta backs monetary union – East African Business Week, May 5, 2014 – Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta has called on the East African Community (EAC) member states to speed up the adoption of a common currency for the region…. The Community is now working towards a political federation, whose frameworks are being worked on, beginning with drafting a new constitution.

Implementation Of Regional Infrastructure Projects – Coastweek (Kenya), May11, 2014 – Under the joint tripartite agreement, Uganda committed to lead the railway development and political federation sector while Rwanda is spearheading customs, single tourist visa and East African Community e-identity card as Kenya leads the implementation of the oil pipeline and electricity generation.

Search for political union takes shape Standard Digital News (Kenya), November 13, 2012 – East Africa’s long search for a political Federation, the ultimate goal of the regional integration, has started taking shape. East African Community (EAC) member States have broken new grounds with a proposal by a team of experts to adopt a new structure similar to Tanzanian model (Tanganyika/Zanzibar) headed by a single President ruling for a year.

East Africa: Europe Crisis Won’t Halt East Africa Monetary Union Plans – AllAfrica, October 17, 2012 – Under the arrangement of the Monetary Union, the five member States will form a regional central bank, introduce a single currency and harmonise the monetary policy.

East Africa: EAC Common Currency Agreement to Be Designed Soon
AllAfrica, July 27, 2012 – Leaders of East African Community (EAC) remark that an agreement for using one currency might be signed towards the end of 2012 as they are working hard to implement the plans made.

East Africans step up plans for their own “euro” – GlobalPost, Jan. 16, 2012 – The euro zone as role model? Seems unlikely after currency bloc’s two years of woe. But viewed from East Africa it seems like the euro may not be so bad. “The study tour will help the group to better understand … the transitional arrangements to a monetary union and finally discuss the current euro crisis and lessons to be learnt.” The EAC brings together Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda under the slogan of “one people one destiny.”

EAC Central Banks to Harmonise Strategies – AllAfrica, October 23, 2012 – Central banks from the five members’ states of the East African community are looking at harmonizing their banking systems to pave way for the Monetary Union.

ECOWAS Parliament Calls For Single Currency Policy Implementation – Gov of Ghana, April 28, 2014 – ECOWAS-MAPMembers of the ECOWAS Parliament ended its two-day dialogue on cross border challenges and opportunities for trade and finance, with a resolution that ECOWAS should pursue more vigorously the implementation of the single currency.

ECOWAS to improve regional protocol on free movement – Daily Times (Nigeria), July 24, 2012 – The President of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) Commission, Kadre Ouedraogo, has pledged to work for the rigorous implementation of the regional protocol on free movement of persons….The protocol was signed in May 1979 and entitles citizens of member states to visa-free intra-community travel, as well as the right of residence and establishment.

Political sovereignty vs monetary unity – Southern Times, Feb. 10, 2012 – SADC [South African Development Community] is keen on a comprehensive monetary union, which incorporates a single currency and a regional central bank by 2018….But despite the initial integration success, the eurozone crisis has brought to the fore long-held beliefs that macro-economic convergence alone, without fiscal union, will not result in a working monetary union….A monetary union will limit African governments’ fiscal sovereignty and consequently deprive them of policy space. It will also mean transferring tariff decisions and the distribution of customs revenue to a supranational body.

Tanzania: President Kikwete Upbeat On Africa’s Integration – AllAfrica, Jan. 11, 2012 – The President said the ongoing integration of the East African Community (EAC), Southern African Development Community (SADC) and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) would benefit the economies in the area….This is being achieved through various initiatives aimed at harmonising policies and programmes of the three regional economic communities….The move is a major step towards the realisation of the African Economic Community.

Africa’s Success Lies in Unity – AllAfrica, April 9, 2012 – The vision of African integration has played out at two levels: At continental organisation where there has been an unequivocal political tone; and at sub regional levels, where several economic sub-regional arrangements have emerged. The sub-regional institutions have predominantly focused on intra-regional trade promotion through preferential arrangements; establishment of common currency areas and harmonisation of macroeconomic policies to achieve convergence….This definitive trend has been given concrete substance in the formation of the African Union and the strengthening of regional economic communities.

East Africa: Chief Roots for Political Federation  – AllAfrica, May 3, 2012 – Political federation of the East African Community (EAC) is crucial for the region’s stability and integration, EAC Secretary-General Dr Richard Sezibera said.

Kenya: East African political Federation takes shape – Afrique en Ligue, November 4, 2012 – The East African Community (EAC), which hosted experts drawn from the five states—Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania—to a discussion on the proposed structure of the Federation, said the experts agreed fears of losing sovereignty should be considered in the constitution of the Federation.

The EAC Treaty has the force of law in Uganda – New Vision (Uganda), July 25, 2012 – First, the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community provides for general undertaking as to implementation. In particular, Article 8(4) provides that Community organs, institutions and laws shall take precedence over similar national ones on matters pertaining to the implementation of this treaty.

East Africa eases flow of imports with new tax model – Business Daily (Kenya), May 1, 2012 – The East African Community (EAC) heads of state have endorsed a revenue management model where tax will only be collected at the point of entry and imported goods transported to the final destination without stopping at national border points for customs charges or inspection.                                   
[This is exactly the objective of the U.S.-Canada “Beyond the Border” agreement, and is a goal common to all of the world’s geopolitical regions.]

East Africa gets ready for common tourist visa IPPMedia, November 4, 2012 – The East African Community is finalizing plans for a single destination visa that will offer tourists to the region the opportunity to visit different parts of East Africa.

We anxiously look forward to our IDs – IPP Media (Tanzania), Jan 23, 2014 – As a matter of fact, in view of the East African Community [EAC] now moving with full speed towards political integration, national IDs for Tanzanians are essential for the country to fulfill one of the requirements for the free movement of people in the region.

SADC free movement protocol awaits House approval – Tanzania Daily News, May 23, 2013 – Tanzania has made progress towards the ratification of a protocol that will allow free movement of people from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries without being required to apply for a visa.

Central Africa: Regional Integration Promoted – Prensa Latina, Jan. 15, 2012 – Heads of State and Government of Central African countries are discussing on Sunday issues related to the free trade area and free movement of persons and goods in the region. They are also assessing an economic partnership agreement between the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) and the European Union, the elections at the heart of the commission of the African Union, and other issues.


African Parliament demands for functional powers  – Africa Review, October 9, 2012 – The Pan African Parliament (PAP) is urging presidents and heads of governments of the African Union to give an approval granting it legislative and oversight functions.

Continental Integration Bedrock for Africa’s Survival – AllAfrica, November 10, 2012 – That was how the Pan African Parliament started….We started as a consultative and advisory body with a view that after the first five years of its existence, the protocol establishing the Pan African Parliament would be reviewed to enable it be given additional functions and powers.

War Crimes Court for Africa?  – AllAfrica, July 13, 2012 – The African Union’s Human Rights Commission seated in Banjul, The Gambia could be used as Africa’s War Crimes Court in trying those accused of committing war crimes and crimes against humanity on the continent.

Analysis: How close is an African criminal court? – IRIN News, June 13, 2012 – The long-running spat between the African Union (AU) and International Criminal Court (ICC) over perceived bias has prompted the AU to push ahead with plans to form its own Africa-wide criminal court, but analysts believe the move could complicate, rather than enhance, international justice.

AU court seeks to expand jurisdiction – Zimbabwe Independent, July 20, 2012 – The African Union’s African Court on Human and People’s Rights judge president Gerard Niyungeko has revealed that the institution wants to expand its jurisdiction to criminal matters in a manner similar to the International Criminal Court (ICC) to address its challenges.

ECOWAS Urged To Force Compliance To Community Court’s Decisions – JollofNews (Senegal, Gambia), November 15, 2012 – The ECOWAS Commission has committed to working towards ending a trend of defiance by member states towards the ECOWAS Community Courts of Justice (ECCJ).

Pax Aufricana: Who is paying for the African Union anyway? (1) – Modern Ghana, November 14, 2012 – According to the authors, program costs for key institutions, such as the Pan-African Parliament(PAP); the Human Rights Commission (ACHPR); the African Court (AfCHPR); NEPAD Planning Commission Agency (NPCA); the Commission on International Law(AUCIL); the Anti-Corruption Board and the Committee on the Rights and Welfare of Children (ACRWC) are all paid for by external donors!

Pan-African Parliament seeks to Strengthen Linkages with National Parliaments in Africa  – StarAfrica, August 30, 2012 – The Clerk of the Pan-African Parliament, Adv. Zwelethu Madasa, in his presentation to the meeting said that the Protocol establishing the PAP was still under review by the African Union Member States. This is to establish how the Pan-African Parliament can be transformed from its current advisory and consultative position into a full legislative body.

Blocs seek to emulate EAC regional assembly – The Citizen (Tanzania), August 30, 2012 – Some regional economic blocs in Africa have shown desire to transform their legislative bodies into Assemblies with legislative powers, it was disclosed here yesterday. They want to copy the East African Legislative Assembly (Eala) model which is the only regional Parliament in the continent out of the seven with legislative powers.

ECOWAS submits draft Act to enhance powers of parliament – Nigerian Tribune, August 1, 2012 – The Speaker of ECOWAS [Economic Commission of West African States] Parliament, Senator Ike Ekweremadu, who submitted the Act, regretted that the commission’s Parliament was the only supranational parliament with solid structure and prospects of transforming into a full legislative body throughout the African continent. He informed that at the time of its inception in 2000, it had remained a mere consultative and advisory parliament, whereas other regional parliaments it predated had either gained legislative powers or about doing so.

AFRICA: THE HAGUE COURT – TIME CONTINENT STANDS UP TO EUROPE – AllAfrica, May 15, 2012 – There is also a strong perception that the ICC was set to deal with “errant” Africans whose existence threatened the hegemonic influence of the superpowers in their scramble for African resources….In the same way that the African Union refused to recognise the arrest warrant issued for Sudanese President al-Bashir, the African continent must refuse to recognise such a kangaroo court whose agenda is simply to dehumanise Africans in the same manner that slavery did to our fore fathers. The most plausible way forward is for the African Union to actualise its African court as stipulated in its Constitutive Act.

Africa: ICC Plays Useful Role on Continent – AllAfrica, April 30, 2012 – The ICC [International Criminal Court] has now become a genuine deterrent against wrongdoing. That is why ECOWAS [Economic Community of West African States] is threatening Guinea Bissau with the spectre of the ICC. And whether or not the ICC has unfairly targeted the Ocampo Four, there will be a sword hanging over the head of anyone who tries to tamper with the Kenyan election next year.

African Union Press release – Dec. 8, 2011 – The African Union has drafted a model national law on the ratification of treaties….The model national law aims at encouraging member states of the African Union to ratify treaties which they have adopted, work towards harmonization of procedures for ratification of treaties on the continent, and facilitate their effective implementation according to the legal systems of member states. It borrows heavily from best practices in some States on the continent, which have adopted national laws setting out binding procedures with time frames for the signing and ratification of AU instruments.

In Africa, Development Still Comes At Freedom’s Expense – AllAfrica, Feb. 21, 2012 – Taking a cue from China, which has an expanding role on the continent as an investor and model, they stress social stability and development over openness and reform….Political dissent is stamped out, and the tales of people left out of economic development, particularly in rural areas, go untold. In January, for example, the outgoing African Union chairman, President Bingu wa Mutharika of Malawi, signed into law an amendment to the country’s penal code giving the information minister unchecked authority to block the reporting of any news the government deems not to be in the public’s interest.

Africa: It’s Time the Continent Reverts to Its Founding Principles – AllAfrica, May 25, 2012 – We have noted the disinterest by member states in funding the AU’s budgetary requirements, with the exception of the late Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. Imperialists have exploited this void, and today, one of the major funders of the AU is the European Union.

U.S. Military Steps Up ‘Sustained Engagement’ With Africa – AllAfrica, July 13, 2012 – Ambassador Anthony Holmes, the deputy Africom commander for civilian-military activities, outlined what he describes as a ‘concerted’ American effort to strengthen the capacity of African militaries to handle their own security, using a ‘by, with and through’ approach’. Excerpts:….”This can’t be done overnight. Essentially what we are doing is building institutions at the national level, at the sub-regional level and at the continental level. So we work with the African Union, we work with the regional economic commissions to develop their peace and security architecture and to promote the cooperation of African countries among themselves.”

The imperial agenda of the US’s ‘Africa Command’ marches on – London Guardian, June 14, 2012 – The idea, once again, is that it will not be US or European forces fighting and dying for western interests in the coming colonial wars against Africa, but Africans. The US soldiers employed by Africom are not there to fight, but to direct; the great hope is that the African Union’s forces can be subordinated to a chain of command headed by Africom.

Africa: US And NATO Build Neo-Colonial Proxy Forces – Analysis – Eurasia Review, July 2, 2012 – By training, modernizing, arming and integrating the armed forces of the 54-nation African Union (in the case of Egypt through U.S. Central Command and NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue), the U.S. and its main NATO allies are developing regional proxy forces – most notably the African Standby Force – for armed interventions against nations whose governments are not to the West’s liking. Hence the talk of a joint brigade from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the foundation for a projected West African Standby Force, intervening in Ivory Coast last year and Mali this.

Largest Military Communications Exercise in Africa Kicks Off in Cameroon – AllAfrica, June 20, 2012 – Africa Endeavor, an annual communications joint exercise sponsored by U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), focuses on the interoperability of equipment and information sharing among military representatives throughout the African Union…. “U.S. Africa Command’s ambition is to not only strengthen partnerships between the United States military and the militaries of African nations, but to strengthen the partnership between African nations’ militaries as well,” [U.S. Marine Colonel Andrew Kostic] said.

Libya, Africa and Africom – CounterPunch, May 25, 2012 – It is no coincidence that barely a month after the fall of Tripoli – and in the same month Gaddafi was murdered (October 2011) – the US announced it was sending troops to no less than four more African countries….None of this would have been possible whilst Gaddafi was still in power. As founder of the African Union, its biggest donor, and its one-time elected Chairman, he wielded serious influence on the continent.

U.S. Trains Ugandans for Somalia Mission – TIME | Associated Press, May 14, 2012 – About 3,500 Ugandan troops are currently undergoing training at Singo under the State Department’s Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance program, which also trains soldiers from Burundi and several other African nations. The training should allow the soldiers from different countries to operate with each other more smoothly after they’re deployed to Somalia. The contractors have been training African Union forces since 2007.

UK police lauds EAC police harmonization programme – StarAfrica|African Press Organization, Feb. 7, 2012 – The Head of United Kingdom’s National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA), Kurt Eyre, has lauded the efforts of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States to harmonize Police Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs)….when addressing a ten-man EAC delegation of senior police officers and experts at the NPIA International Academy in Bramshill, Hampshire, the United Kingdom, over the weekend….The Regional Peace and Security Strategy stresses enhancement of the EAC spirit of co-operation by promoting collective responsibility in the provision of regional security by the Partner States. It broadly covers collaboration on cross border and trans-national organized crimes, among others.

Comesa countries considering single travel visa eTurboNews, August 22, 2012 – “One of the things we are going to agree among the stakeholders in the Comesa [Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa] region is to have borderless movement, so that both domestic and even international tourists can move freely from one country to the other,” -said Mwazo.

African Union, China sign AMISOM support agreement  – Afrique en ligne, Dec. 24, 2011 – China-Africa – China has agreed to provide equipment and material valued at about US$4.5 million for the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), according to a press release issued by the African Union (AU) on Friday.

Does the US, UN and AMISOM Supply Al-Shabaab? – Somalia Report, July 30, 2011 – Aid organizations funding terrorist groups is an unpleasant reality of Mogadishu. So is the reality of AMISOM [African Union Mission in Somalia] and TFG [Tranitional Federal Government] soldiers selling their weapons and ammunition for that tainted money.

ECOWAS Parliament Moves to Enhance Power – All Africa Global Media, Dec. 15, 2011 – Speaker of the ECOWAS parliament, Ike Ekweremadu, has disclosed that the first session of the 2012 of the parliament will focus on the enhancement of the parliament’s power to enable them perform a parliamentarian duties rather than being a mere consultative body.

Uganda, Kony in spotlight again – The East African (Kenya), Nov. 27, 2011 – Mid last month, US President Obama ordered the deployment of 100 armed military advisers to hunt down the LRA [Lord’s Resistance Army], a decision that raises the risk of putting US military personnel in “harm’s way” in another region….Congolese mistrust hampers current operations, and an African Union initiative has been slow to start.

Namibia: Ambitious Power Project in Pipeline – AllAfrica, July 13, 2012 – Once it sees the light of day the project will add a new western leg to north-south transmission links between Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Energy Ministers from the four Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries are also expected to sign agreements supporting the construction of a power line running from Zambia, through Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to reinforce the SAPP power grid….The project is ranked as a Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP) priority project and a flagship African Union regional integration initiative.

Africa aims to implement 15 cross-border energy projects worth $40.5bn by 2020
– Engineering News, September 25, 2012 – The project portfolio, which has been identified and selected partly on the basis of the projects’ ability to enhance cross-border energy-market development, embraces nine hydroelectricity generation developments, four transmission corridors and two pipelines, one for oil and the other for gas.

World Bank grants loan for Kenya-Ethiopia power line Sabahi, July 12, 2012 – This new Eastern Electricity Highway Project marks the first phase of $1.3-billion power integration project for East Africa, which will benefit 212 million people living in five countries.
The Sabahi web site is sponsored by the United States Africa Command.

Southern Africa: SADC Infrastructure Plan Ready for Approval  – AllAfrica, July 6, 2012 – If endorsed by the southern African leaders, the master plan would guide development in key infrastructure such as road, rail and ports, and would also act as a framework for planning and cooperation with development partners and the private sector….It is also in line with the African Union’s Programme for Infrastructure Development of Africa (PIDA) and will constitute a key input into the proposed tripartite Free Trade Area made up of SADC [Southern African Development Community], the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the East African Community (EAC).

East African railway master plan gets funding – International Railway Journal, August 24, 2012 – The African Development Bank (AfDB) has provided $US 500m to the East African Community (EAC), which covers Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, to roll out projects under its Railway Master Plan starting this year.

SADC creates fund to accelerate infrastructure development– Mmegi (Botswana), August 21, 2012 – The Council of Ministers of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has approved the setting up of a long-awaited Regional Development Fund, one of whose main priorities will be the financing of infrastructure in the region….along transport or trade routes, energy transmission grids, tourism conservation areas, river basins, and regional and international telecommunication backbones.

SA welcomes SADC infrastructure plan – Bizcommunity (Cape Town, SA), August 20, 2012 – South Africa has welcomed the adoption of a regional infrastructure master plan by Southern African Development Community (SADC)….to guide setting up of efficient and cost-effective trans-boundary infrastructure connecting all SADC member states in areas of energy, water, ICT and transport.

African Development Bank Proposes Infrastructure Bond For Africa  – Bernama (Malaysia), August 18, 2012 – Bank president Donald Kaberuka said the investment would add up to US$22 billion and this could be used to finance construction of infrastructure such as rail, roads and power plants.

ECOWAS nudges member states on regional infrastructure development – Afrique en Ligue, November 10, 2012 – While underlining the catalytic role infrastructure can play in the achievement of the ECOWAS Vision 2020, the Vice-President solicited stronger commitment and support to enhance the operations of the West African Power Pool, the ECOWAS Regional Electricity Regulatory Authority, the ECOWAS Centre for the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency as well as the West African Gas pipeline Authority and the ECOWAS Bank for investment and Development.

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